The danish Resistance against the German occupation of Denmark 1940-45 under World War 2.

Den danske Modstandsbevægelse under den tyske okkupation af Danmark 1940-45 under den 2. verdenskrig.

 

Danish National Liberation Day 4.-5. May 2014 – 69 years after the war.

 

Danmarks Befrielsedag den 4.-5. Maj 2014 markeres i Mindelund Ryvangen og ved Ankeret i Nyhavn, København.

 

Text and photos Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Memorial Monument “Denmark/Mother with her killed son” in Memorial Park “Mindelunden Ryvangen”, Hellerup, Copenhagen:

Text on the plinth of the statue:

DRENGE I DRENGE SOM DØDE / I TÆNDTE FOR DANMARK / I DYBESTE MULM / EN LYSENDE MORGENRØDE

Translation:

BOYS YOU BOYS WHO DIED / YOU TURNED ON LIGHT FOR DENMARK / IN DEEPEST DARKNES S/ A SHINING DAWN

 

Memorial Monument in Mindelunden i Ryvangen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Monument “Mother with her killed son” in memory of the dead men and woman under the Danish Resistance Movement  against the German occupation of Denmark under World War 2 1940-45. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

On 9. april 1940 from early morning 4.15 until midday Denmark was invaded by Nazi German Army, Marine and Air Force. The German Government gave the Danish Government an ultimatum of total surrender – if not the German Air Force would destroy the capital of Copenhagen by bombing.

The German Government gave the Danish Government the offer of political freedom, if they did not offer resistance. At a meeting at 6 a.m. in King Christian 10´s Amalienborg Residence in Copenhagen the Danish Government surrendered to the demands of the German Nazi Government.

At 7 a.m. the german marines landed on Langelinie quai in Copenhagen with thousands of soldiers and occupied the Fortress Kastellet. Thousands of german soldiers invaded Jutland and were fighting with danish soldiers until 8 a.m.  – 17 danish soldiers died in the fightings.

Before midday Ålborg Military Airbase i Jutland was bombarded and invaded by the German Airforce.

Denmark had within 6 hours been occupied of a huge german military power created by a nazi regime from 1933-40 with a population of more than 60 millions against a danish population of 5 millions – it was a elefant against a mouse!

It was a humiliation of the danish national pride of not defending their nation, as they have done in the passed 1000 years!

 

Click on the photos and use your zoom control and you see them in full screen size.

 

105 graves from danish fighters in the Danish Resistance Movement against the german nazi occupation of Denmark 1940-45:

Det Store Gravfelt, Mindelunden Ryvangen:

 

Graves of 105 danish resistance fighters under the Nazi German occupation of Denmark 9. april – 5. may 1945. Det Store Gravfelt in Mindelunden Ryvangen, Copenhagen. The Monument “Denmark/Mother with her killed son” in the background at right. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

From 9. april 1940 to 29. august 1943 the Danish Government and Parliament “Folketinget” reigned Denmark in co-operation with the German Government i Berlin through a german political coordinator Renthe-Fink (1940-42) and Werner Best (1942-45) and the high commander of the German Military in Denmark general von Hanneken.

 

Det Store gravfelt Mindelunden Ryvangen:

 

Graves from 105 Danish Resistance Movement 1940-45. Det Store Gravfelt i Mindelunden Ryvangen, Hellerup, Copenhagen. Photo 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

One of the reasons by the double attack by Nazi-Germany on Denmark and Norway on the same day 9. april 1940 was to protect Germany from an British/USA invasion and later attack from Scandinavia – from northern Europe. The Nazi Germany wanted to get the supreme military power by submarines in the Northern Atlantic Ocean between Denmark, Norway in the east and Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard and the Faerø Islands in the west.

Thats why England invaded the Faerø Islands in the Atlantic Ocean the 12. april 1940. On 9. april 1941 USA signed a treaty with Danish ambassador in Washington Henrik Kaufmann by a secret permission of the danish King Christian 10 (Hull-Kauffmann) agreement.  This treaty “Grønlandstraktaten” allowed U.S.A. to build 14 naval bases, airfields, meteorological- and radiostations in north-, west- and south Greenland: Bluie West 1-9  on the west coast and Bluie East 1-5 on the east coast of Greenland. In 1942-43 the american military builded Narsarsuaq Air Field and Naval Support Base Grondal, Bluie West Seven (Flådestation Grønnedal) close to Ivigtuut Cryolite mine in South Greenland and in Iceland Keflavik Airfield to protect the allied ship traffic between Europe and United States against nazi germans submarines attacks in North Atlantic Ocean. American military personal on american military installations in Greenland 1941-45: in average 5.500 men and woman.

The 10. may 1940 Nazi-Germany attacked Holland, Belgium, Luxembourg and France an a “Blizzkrieg”. Holland og Belgium surrended and exil governments were established i London, England. On 22. june 1940 France surrounded to Nazi Germany and was divided in German occupied zone north/west and a german friendly zone in south/west of France and governed by marchal Pétain (Vichy-government).

From july 1940 the fascist government in Italy led by Benito Mussulini (Partito Nazionale Fascsita (PNF) joined actively in the War as a military partner with Nazi-Germany. The fascist and totalitarian  governments in Spain (General Franco) and Portugal (Salazar) supported Nazi Germany politically and military.

In  the summer 1940 the British Government in London founded “Special Operations Executive, SOE” to carry out plans to help establish secrete and undergrounds military forces in all Nazi-German occupied territories in Europe: France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Poland and Czechoslovakia.

 

The start of the danish resistance movement in summer 1940: 

 

The humiliating surrender of the danish military forces the 9. april 1940 to Nazi-Germany and the danish governments cooperation with Germany to avoid the destruction of the danish society established a secret and illegal military and civil cooperation in Denmark to form a danish resistance movement against the Nazi-Germain occupation.

From summer 1940 this military and civil illegal resistance movement i Denmark war coordinated by the danish  Military General Staff Intelligence Service.  The secret danish Military Intelligence Service passed on 1940-45 through secret contact journalist Ebbe Munck in Stockholm, Sweden to the British Government military and political informations about the danish occupation by Nazi Germany.

 

Relatives to Kim Malthe-Bruun – a danish resistance fighter against the nazi german occupation of Denmark 1940-45 honour tribute at his grave on Danish 69 years Liberation Day, 5. may 2014:

 

Relatives to a danish resistance fighter Kim Malthe-Bruun under the german nazi occupation of Denmark 1940-45 at his grave to honour tribute. Det Store Gravfelt i Mindelunden Ryvangen. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Grave of Kim Malthe-Bruun 1923-45 – danish resistance fighter, Mindelunden Ryvangen: 

In 1944 Kim Mathe-Brunn joined the resistance group “The students intelligence Group”, (Studenternes Efterretningstjeneste).  This resistance group carried out illegal transportations of refuges danish resistant fighters of secrete routes  across  Øresund between Denmark and Sweden and smuggled automatic weapons from Sweden to the resistance Movement in Denmark. He was captured by German secret police Gestapo in Classensgade, Copenhagen 19. december 1944 receiving smuggled weapons from Sweden to the danish resistant movement. The 21. february 1945 he was jailed in Vestre Fængsel (Vestre Prison) in Copenhagen and was severe tortured. The 6. april 1945 he together with 3 other fellow resistance fighters from the same resistance group “The student intelligence Group” were executed by shooting in Barrack Area Ryvangen here in Memorial Park Ryvangen, Copenhagen.

Source (Kilde):

KIM, ved Vibeke Malthe-Bruun,Thanning & Appels Forlag, København, 1949. “Uddrag af Dagbog og Breve skrevet af Kim fra hans syttende til hans enogtyvende Aar” udgivet af hans Moder Vibeke Malthe-Bruun, copyright 1945 by Thanning & Appel, Copenhagen. First edition november 1945.

 

The grave of danish resistance fighter Kim Malthe-Bruun 1923-45. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

1940-41 – first year:

 

The first occupation year from april 1940 to june 1941 the Nazi-German Government respected the authority by the Danish Parliament and Government except severe restrictions of the danish constitution “Grundloven” regulations on free speech, public gatherings in open space, press freedom and independent court of justice.

The established illegal resistance movement was established by men and woman from all the danish society: military, workers, farmers, intellectuals, business, many political parties and was secret. It was a coordinated and dominated by social democratic, middle-class and bourgeois conservative social and political values. 

The danish illegal and underground resistance movement had a double function: to liberate Denmark from the nazi occupation and to established a political Denmark with its free Constitution (Grundloven) with all its rights to the danish population.

 

The 22. june 1941 the Nazi German military attacked The Soviet Union and on the same day  Nazi German Government ordered The danish Government to arrest all communists in The danish Parliament and in the danish society and The Communist Party (DKP) was from now on forbidden i Denmark. They were sentenced in prison Horserød in North Sealand.

The Communist Party with its newspaper “Arbejderbladet” became from now on an illegal underground movement with a illegal press “Land og Folk” and with a goal of establish resistance military groups in Denmark against the Nazi-German occupation.  

 

1941-42 – second year:

 

In 1942 the illegal underground Communist Party in Denmark formed a partisan organization KOPA to fight the Nazi-German occupation army and danish firms, which produced weapons to the german military. Later in 1942 the organization was transformed to BOPA  (BOrgelige PArtisaner) and allowed non communists to join their resistance activities all over Denmark.

 

The bourgeois branch of The danish resistance movement had 2 options:
A military 

The bourgeois branch of the danish resistance movement established in coordination with SOE (Special Operations Executive) in London military groups for sabotage actions against the Nazi Germain occupation forces and to form a secret underground danish army to help an anglo-american army in a future invation to free Denmark and Norway from Nazi-Germain occupation.

and  a political

through informations by Radio BBC in London and through a danish illegal secret press to inform the danish population about political and military developments i Europe and around the world about the war and how to react properly as patriots.

 

In 1941 established “RINGEN” as a half illegal non-political resistance movement with members from national trade unions  and political center- and socialdemocrat parties from all Denmark.

 

In spring 1942 a cross-party secret resistance national front movement FRIT DANMARK (Liberated Denmark) was established with a illegal newspaper “FRIT DANMARK” with a monthly edition from april 1942. The editorial staff was a coordination of communist and bourgeois resistance man and woman.

 

From new year 1941-42 the british SOE dropped agents by parachutes to established a secret underground army in Denmark and to form illegal resistance groups to cause sabotage actions against the Nazi German occupation. 

 

In 1942 SOE had established resistance groups with the danish party “DANSK SAMLING” and young and elder people throughout Denmark  to start sabotage actions. At the same time SOE planned a future danish underground army with their danish partners in Army Intelligence Service.

 

 

Students takes notes to write a  script on the resistance movement against the nazi german occupation of Denmark 1940-45:

 

Students taking notes at the 105 graves of danish resistance fighters killed by nazi germans troops occupied Denmark 1940-45. Det Store Gravfelt i Mindelunden Ryvangen, Hellerup, Copenhagen. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

1942-43 – third year:

 

In early 1943 SOE (Special Operations Executive) in  London had organized a agent network in all parts of Denmark  with weapons and ammunition dropped by parachutes from british airplanes.

Together with secrets supplies routes between Denmark and neutral Sweden the danish national resistance movement received weapons and ammunition to their underground resistance sabotage against the Nazi German army and danish collaborators.

 

In spring 1943 the Copenhagen resistance organization “HOLGER DANSKE” was formed. This resistance organisation completed together with “BOPA”, “Dansk Samling” and a lot of independent resistance groups several severe and well planed sabotages all over Denmark against the nazi-german occupations forcers in spring and summer 1943.

 

Popular rising and strikes: Folkestrejken 29. august 1943

In august 1943 rebellions in 17 major danish cities broke out with union strikes and civil disobedience against the Nazi-German occupation forces in Denmark. The Nazi German Government i Berlin ordered the Danish Government to stop the rebellions by force and to introduce death penalty to activities by the danish resistance movement. The Danish Government refused to act against its own population and resigned from power.

That decision of The Danish Government the 29. august 1943 became a turning point for the resistance against the Nazi-German occupation of  Denmark.

 

The response from the nazi-german government in Berlin was order to disarm and internee the danish army and navy. The german high commander in Denmark ordered state of emergency in all Denmark.

The 29. august 1943 admiral A. H. Vedel of the danish Navy ordered all danish navy vessels to be destroyed and sunked. 14 danish naval ships fled to Sweden.

From 29. august 1943 all danish military forces – army-, navy- and airpersonnel went underground and became part of the danish illegal resistance movement.

 

Danish Freedom Council.

 

The 16. september 1943 the organization Danish Freedom Council,  “FRIHEDSRÅDET” was formed to coordinate the danish resistance movement against the nazi-occupation of Denmark.

All the major resistance groups became member of  “Frihedsrådet”:

 

DKP (Børge Houmann), FRIT DANMARK (Mogens Fog), DANSK SAMLIG (Arne Sørensen), RINGEN (Frode Jakobsen) and representative form SOE (Special Operations Executive) Flemming B. Muus.

 

Military and political goals of  Danish Freedom Council, “Frihedsrådet”:

 

Military goal was to organize the illegal resistance against nazi-german forces in all areas and by all means in every parts of Denmark.

The political goal was to form a free danish democratic government after Denmark was liberated by help of allied military forces of  Britain and United States of America.

 

 OKTOBER 43 – 7000  danish jews fled to Sweeden:

 

Werner Best was High Commander of Nazi-Germany in Denmark and member of the secret police Gestapo (SS). Werner Best asked Hitler to carry out Holocaust against the 8000 jews in Denmark.

The night between 1.-2. october 1943 the secret german police (SS), Gestapo and the German Wehrmacht started to arrest jews in their homes in all Denmark. 2 days earlier 28. september 1943 the holocaust plans against the danish jews were leaked to leading members of the jewish society and all jews were  recommended to flee their homes and to stay underground, hide and flee to Sweden.

From 29. september 1943 and the following october weeks all sections of the danish population helped their fellow jew citizens to leave their homes, to hide and to organize their escape to the neutral nation Sweden. 

Danish doctors helped to hide the jews in danish hospital beds, workers and fishermen helped with their transportations to the danish forests, harbors and to the coastlines for further secret transportation by boats and fisher boats to neutral Sweden.

From East-, South- and Northsealand 6-700 fisher-and boattranportations with jews passed Kattegat Sea, Baltic Sea and Øresund.

It was a united danish population which surrounded, protected and saved their 8000 jewish fellow citizen from being deported to concentrations in Germany to destruction in the nazi SS-Gerstapo organized Holocoast of all european jews.

7000 danish jews fled and was allowed and welcomed to stay and got food, money and accommodation in Sweden by the Swedish Government.  481 danish jews were captured by nazi-german secret police GESTAPO and deported to concentration camp Theresienstadt in Bøhmen out of those  52 died in this concentration camp.

 

Honour to the illegal Resistance Movement in Denmark 1940-45 from Israel Government through Israel Embassy in Denmark on Danish Liberation Day 5. may 2014:

Monument: “Denmark/Mother with her killed son”.

Inscription on the plinth of the monument:

DRENGE I DRENGE SOM DØDE / I TÆNDTE FOR DANMARK / I DYBESTE MULM / EN LYSENDE MORGENRØDE

Translation:

BOYS YOU BOYS WHO DIED / YOU TURNED ON LIGHT FOR DENMARK / IN DEEPEST DARKNESS / A SHINING DAWN

 

Tribute to The danish illegal resistance movement under World War 2 1940-45 from Israel Government through Israel Embassy in Denmark on  69 years of Danish Liberation Day 5. may 2014. Flowers in front of Monument. “Denmark/Mother – Mother with her killed son”, Memorial Park Ryvangen, Hellerup, Copenhagen. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik Kristian Abrahamsen

 

This holocoast actions by Nazi-German forces in Denmark united the danish population to fight by all means political and military against the german occupation forces and their danish nazi aliens. 

In october 1943 the danish military was set free from german prisons in Denmark and went underground to in coordination with “FRIHEDSRÅDET” to fight in the danish resistance movement against all nazi-germans forces and their danish supporters.

In december 1943 SOE (Special Operations Executive) in London ordered the danish military to form an illegal underground danish army with small groups to fight behind the german lines under a future allied anglo-amerian military invation of occupied Denmark.

The danish military officers formed secret regional groups all over Denmark. In Sweden fled danish officers and men and woman from the danish resistance movement established a brigade “DANFORCE”: DEN DANSKE BRIGADE.

 

1943-44 – fourth year:

 

In winter and spring 1944 the military sabotage actions from the united danish resistance movement against the nazi-german forces and their danish allies developes rapidly in numbers. The german secret police GESTAPO orders german anti-terror against the danish resistance movement and clearing-murders of the civil danish population. 

The united danish resistance movement got weapons and ammunition via secrets routes by sea from Sweden and from british airplanes delivered by parachutes to secrets places in Jutland, Funen an Sealand.

 

In marts 1943 a danish resistance group was formed of 14 members in Jutland “Hvidstengruppen”. This resistance groupe operated by receiving weapons, ammunition  and agents from british airplanes dropped by parachutes  and organized from London by SOE.

“Hvidstengruppen” organized this weapon and ammunition deliverances from England throughout more than 1 year until they were captured by Gestapo in march 1944 and put to prison in Vestre Fængsel i Copenhagen. 8 members was sentenced by nazi-german war court to death and 6 members to prison in Germany. On 29. june 1944 the 8 members of Hvidsten gruppen were executed by shooting in Ryparken Barrack Area in Hellerup, Copenhagen – today Mindelunden Ryparken:

 

German Gestapo Execution area in Barrack Ryparken – today memorial Park Mindelunden, Hellerup, Copenhagen:

Text on the plate in front:

DRENGE I DRENGE SOM DØDE

I TÆNDTE FOR DANMARK

I DYBESTE MULM

EN LYSENDE MORGENRØDE

 

German Gestapo execution by shooting area in Ryparken Barrack Area in Hellerup, Copenhagen. Today part of Mindelunden Ryparken. 3 execution poles made in bronze from the originals. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Danish students get lessons in the Danish Resistance Movement under World War 2, 9. april 1940 – 5. may 1945:

German Gestapo Execution by shooting Area in Barrack Ryparken – today Memorial Park Ryparken, Hellerup, Copenhagen:

 

Danish students get a lesson in the background about the Danish Resistance Movement against nazi-german occupation of Denmark under World War 2, 1940-45. Memorial Park Ryparken, Hellerup, Copenhagen, Denmark. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

 Original photos of execution poles in Ryvangen Barrack, Hellerup, 1940-45:

Click on the photos and use your zoom control and you see them in full screen size.

 

Photos from the war 1940-45: the execution area with 3 execution poles in Ryvangen Barracks in Hellerup, Copenhagen. This montre is situated at the entrance of  Memorial Park Ryvangen,Mindelunden Ryvangen. Photo: 8. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Since the 29. august 1943 strikes and rebellions (August oprøret 1943) the german secret police Gestapo arrested and terrorized civil, military and members of the danish resistance movement all over Denmark. The united resistance movement organized thousands of sabotage actions against the german army and the danish collaborators and firms making war materials to the german war industry.

During 1944 the danish united resistance movement escalated its sabotage actions against the nazi german occupation forces.

 

There are hundreds of Civil Illegal Danish Resistance Groups operating the entire Denmark. Some of them with only 2-10 members and all in all about 2-3000 man and woman. The most active groups were: 

 

BOPA, 1941 – 45, about 400 members – sabotage, illegal newspapers in all Denmark

Churchill Club, 1940 – 42, 7 members – sabotage in Aalborg, Jutland

Holger Danske, 1943 – 45, about 350 members – sabotage, liquidation mainly Copenhagen

L-Group, 1940 – 45, ? members – sabotage, liquidation mainly in Jutland

Hvidstengruppen, 1943 – 44, 14 members – Started by Marius Fiil under supervision by organizer of resistance movement i Jutland and member of SOE (Special Operations Executive) Flemming Juncker – weapon and british and danish agents deliveries from parachutes from british airplanes in Jutland

Student Intelligence Group, Studenternes Efterretningstjeneste, 1942 – 45, about 500 members – illegal transportation of weapon and danish resistant fighters to and from Sweden to Denmark mainly in Copenhagen

Dansk Samling, 1941 – 45, about 140 members – weapon deliveries by parachutes from british airplanes, sabotage, newspapers all over Denmark

Ringen 1941 – 45, Political Socialdemocratic resistance movement, 1000 member: illegal production and distribution of news and pamphlets, coordination of union strikes all over Denmark

De Frie Danske (Founded by civil resistant group Vædderen 1940), 1940-45, illegal newspaper “De Frie Danske” with an every month editions of 20.000 exemplars in 1945 all over Denmark

 

The numbers of sabotage actions 1940-45 by danish resistance group against the nazi german army and the danish collaborators:

Sabotage actions of railways:  about 1500.

Sabotage actions on ship, shipyards and firms producing weapons to the german war industry: about 2800.

 

1944-45: fifth and last year:

 

“Folkestrejken”, danish rebellion and union strikes 29. june – 4. july 1944:

The same day after the death execution of 8 members of Hvidsten gruppen the 29. june 1944 i Ryparken Barrack Area in Copenhagen a one week rebellion by danish citizens broked out in all cities all over Denmark: “Folkestrejken”. This resistance rebellion against the nazi-german occupation of Denmark became known all over the free world in United Staes of America and in Britain telling the message that Denmark, The King Christian 10 and the people were on the side of the allied free and democratic world and against any kind of totalitarian rules and governments neither communist, fascist or nazi.

 

The german high commanders in Denmark Werner Best and von Hanneken ordered the danish police to investigate and arrest members and sympateurs of the danish resistance movement, striking workers, union officials and men and woman, who produced and distributed the illegal press against the German occupation.

The danish police refused to arrest and investigate the danish resistance movement and on 19. september 1944 Gestapo broke up the danish police and arrested its members. Out of the total danish police of  about 10.000 men 1960 danish policeman were deported to German concentrations camps: Neuengamme, Stutthof and Buchenwald. Those danish policemen who were not captured by German secret police SS and Gestapo went underground and joined the secret military Danish Resistant Movement or fled to Sweden and were enrolled in The danish Brigade – Den Danske Brigade.

!6. december 1944 1604 danish policemen were transferred to work as prisoners of war in camp Mühlberg/Elbe in Germany. 

From 19. september 1944 to the end of nazi-german occupation of Denmark 5. may 1945 there were no danish police force in duty. All Denmark was now without law and order.

From new year 1945 through january, february, march and april 1945 all danish cities were ravaged with all kinds of unlawful activities: murder, steeling, blackmail, robberies etc.

 

The political and military danish resistance movement enlarged with thousands of participients and supporters helping to hide those who were hunted by SS and Gestapo and to duplicate and distibute illegal newspaper and pamphlets. The secret and illegal newspapers Land og Folk (founded june 1941), De Frie Danske (founded december 1941), Frit Danmark (founded april 1942), Morgenbladet and Information ( founded august 1943 by Børge Outze) were the most influential and widespread in Denmark,  Sweden, Britain and USA.

 

The underground Danish Army:

In 1944-45 the underground illegal military danish army supported by the british “Special Executive Groups (SOE)” and USA “Office of Strategic Services” had a number of 20.000 danish man and woman with hand weapons and on liberation day in may 1945 the army were enlarged to 50.000 men and woman.

 

 

“Den Danske Brigade” (Danforce) in Sweden – The Danish Liberation Army in Sweden:

Under the Nazi-German occupation of Denmark from 1940-45 about 10.000 danish citizens involved in the military and political danish resistance movement fled to Sweden and joined the Danish Liberation Army in Sweden: Den Danske Brigade.

Den Danske Brigade (Danforce) in Sweden was recruited by initiative and under supervision of british SOE (Special Operations Executive) and U.S. Office of Strategic Services during 1943-45  under command of danish military officers. 

In may 1945 Den Danske Brigade (Danforce) was an army of 5000 men well equipped with automatic hand weapons.

 

Liberation day 4.-5. may 1945: 

 

In the evening 4. may 1945 at 8.40 p.m. the BBC in London announced to the danish listeners the all German troops in northern GERMANY, DENMARK and NORWAY from 5. may 1945  at 8 a.m. had surrounded to the british and american military forces.

Early morning the 5. may 1945 The Danish Brigade arrived from Sweden to Elsinore, Denmark and together with the danish military and political resistance movement there took by force all buildings and institutions occupied by the surrended german forces.

Den Danske Brigade (Danforce) and the underground Danish Resistance Army  disarmed the German Army, arrested thousands of danish collaboraters and took responsibility of law and order until the danish police were in duty again 13. may 1945.

In the first days after the Liberation on 5. may 1945 there were severe fightings between the Danish Resistance Army and danish collaboraters (HIPO men/woman) in several cities in Denmark.  In Odense 14 danish resistance fighters were killed, in  Aarhus more than 10 danish civil persons killed and in Copenhagen 54 danish civil persons killed and 255 danes injured.

 

Denmark was liberated by a huge offer of Britain and American military and civilian forces and their populations and by the danish underground illegal resistant military and political movement in Denmark and Sweden.

Danes died under nazi-german occupation of Denmark and the war in the Atlantic Ocean with danish seamen in U.S.A. and Britain allied service:

7000 dead

(out of this total 7000 dead:  about 2300 danish seaman died, about 90 danish policemen died in german prison and concentration camps  and 51 danish jews died in german concentration camps.)

 

At the end of the war about 18.000 Danes and 45.000 Norwegians fled from nazi german occupation of Denmark and Norway to Sweden. There lived mainly in Stockholm and if they did not have money and accommodation they were financial supported by the Swedish Government.

 

Memorial of 2300 Danish seaman died in allied  U.S.A. and Britain duty in World War 2, 1939-45:

 

Memorial Anchor in Nyhavn, Copenhagen in memorial of 2300 danish seamen died in allied duty under World War 2. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

The memorial Anchor in Nyhavn, Copenhagen – 69 years Liberation Day of Denmark 5. may 2014:

 

Memorial Anchor in Nyhavn, Copenhagen in memory af 2300 danish seamen died in allied duty under World War 2, 1939-45. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Memorial of Danish Resistance Movement, World War 2, 1940-45

Memorial tablets in Pergola in Memorial Garden Ryvangen – Mindetavler i Pergolaen, Mindelunden i Ryvangen:

 

Memorial with names of menbers of the Danish Resistance Movement under the nazi-german occupation of Denmark 1940-45. Memorial tablets  in Pergola in Memorial Garden Ryparken.  Mindetavler i Pergolaen, Mindelunden Ryvangen, Hellerup, Copenhagen. Photo: 8. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Inscription on the above memorial tablet at left:

Ivan Adriansen 1924-45

Som offer

Du segned

For frihed og fred

Du ofrede livet

for folket

 

The memorial tablets of danish men and woman as member of the Danish Resistance Movement died under World War 2, 1940-45:

 

Memorial tablets of died men and woman in Danish Resistance Movement under nazi-german occupation of Denmark under World War 2, 1940-45. Mimdepladerne i Pergolaen. Mindelunden i Ryparken, Copenhagen. Photo: 8. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

This article is written to honor and in memory of all soldiers and civilians all over the world, who fought against the totalitarien regimes in Nazi-Germany, Fascist Italy and Fascist Japan from 1937-45.

 

The end of WORLD WAR 2:

15. august 1945 by the surrender of Japan Government.

 

Civilians and soldiers:

dead 1937-45

about 55-70 millions died, 2/3 of the dead were civilians.

 

Dead civilians and soldiers:

Soviet Union: more than 27 mill.

China:  more than 10 mill.

Japon: 1,8 mill.

Poland: 6 mill.

Central European States: 4 mill.

Germany: 5,3 mill.

Holocaust: 6 mill jews died in germain concentration camps executed by gas poisoning.

Britain: 0,4 mill.

USA: 0,4 mill.

France: 0,8 mill.

Italy:  0,3 mill.

 

Source (Kilde):

Den Store Danske Encyklopædi, Bind 20 page 103, Danmarks Nationalleksikon A/S 2001

 

Names from all monuments in Memorial Park Ryvangen of killed danish resistance fighters under the nazi german occupation of Denmark 1940-45:

 

Overview plan of Memorial Park Ryvangen – Mindelunden i Ryvangen, Hellerup, Copenhagen:

 

Overview plan of Memorial Park Ryvangen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Click on the photos and use your zoom control and you see them in full screen size.

 

Navneliste over Mindelunden i Ryvangen – opsat af FRIHEDSKAMPENS VETERANER den 29. august 1993:

Names in Memorial Park Ryvangen of killed resistance fighters in Danish Resistance against Nazi-German occupation of Denmark 1940-45:

 

Mindepladen foran monumentet:

 

Mindepladen foran Monumentet. Names of danish resistance fighters under nazi-german occupation of Denmark 1940-45. Photo: 8. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Memorial tablets of danish resistance fighters under nazi-german occupation of Denmark 1940-45:

Det store gravfelt:

 

Memorial tablet for danish resistance fighters under World War 2, 1940-45. Photo: 8. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

 Memorial tablets in the Pergola –  Mindelunden i Ryvangen:

 

Memorial names of danish fighters from the Danish Resistance movement under World War 2, 1940-45. Photo: 8. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Memorial tablets of danish fighters in the Resistance Movement against German occupation of Denmark under World War 2, 1940-45:

Gravlunden ved rotunden:

 

Memorial tablets of danish fighters from the Danish Resistance Movement under World War 2, 1940-45. Photo: 8. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Original photos from Danish Resistance Movement 1940-45.

Burial 29. august 1945 in Memorial Garden Ryvangen of  105 Danish Resistance fighters :

 

In attendance by King Christian 10 (King of Denmark 1912-47) and Queen Alexandrine.

 

Click on the photos and use your zoom control and you see them in full screen size.

 

Montre with original photos from Danish Resistance Movement under Germain occupation of Denmark under World War 2 1940-45. Burial 29. august 1945 in Memorial Garden Ryvangen of 105 danish Resistance fighters. The montre is situated at the entrance of Memorial Garden Ryvangen, Hellerup, Copenhagen. Photo: 8. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Memorial Park “Mindelunden Ryvangen”, Det store Gravfelt:

 

Memorial Monument “Denmark/Mother with her killed son”.

In norwegian granite by sculpture Axel Poulsen and drawed Kaj Gottlob.

Inscription:

” Drenge I drenge som døde

I tændte for Danmark

i dybeste mulm

en lysende flamme “

Translation:

BOYS YOU BOYS WHO DIED/ YOU TURNED ON LIGHT FOR DENMARK/ IN THE DEEPEST DARKNESS/ A SHINING  DAWN

 

Monument of Danish Resistance fighter under nazi german occupation of Denmark 1940-45. Memorial Monument “Denmark/Mother with her killed son” in norwegian granite by sculpture Axel Poulsen and drawed by Kaj Gottlob. Det Store Gravfelt, Mindelunden Ryvangen, Photo 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

 The capital of Denmark –  Copenhagen  – on the 69 years of Liberation Day 5. may 2014:

 The Yellow Palace – Det Gule Palæ from 1764:

 

Det Gule Palæ, Amaliegade  38. “The yellow Palace”, (Builded 1764 in new classic style by architect N. H. Jardin) at right and neighbour to the Royal Palace Amalienborg (1750-60) with the Colonnade  with 8 pillars by architect Harsdorff in 1794 and the Queens Residence Palace “Amalienborg”  (1750-60) and Amalienborg Square by Nicolai Eigtved (1750-54) in the background with the equestrian statue of King Frederik 5 by sculpture Jacques Saly (1771) in the middle of the square. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

 Liberation Day 5. may 2014 in Amaligade, Copenhagen:

 

Amaliegade. The Yellow Palace from 1764 at left and 2 palaces in Amaligade nr. 15 and 17 by architect Nicolai Eigtved (1701-54) and builded 1754-56 at right. Celebration af 69 years of Liberation Day 5. may 2014. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

 Amalienborg Palace Square by architect Nicolai Eigtved 1750-54:

 

Amalienborg Royal Palace seen from Amalienborg Square by architect Nicolai Eigtved 1750-54. Photo in direction to The Colonnade with 8 pillars by architect Harsdorff 1794. At right The national Lifeguard of the royal family “Livgarden” founded by  King Frederik 3 in 1658 as a resistance army against swedish military invasion of all Denmark 1657-60 and a 22 months (august 1658 – may 1660) complete siege of Copenhagen by Sweden King Karl 10 Gustav. Photo: 5. may 2014 by Erik K Abrahamsen

 

The Queen of Denmark Royal Residence Palace “Amalienborg”, builded by King Frederik 5 in 1750-60:

 

Amalienborg Royal Palace (1750-60) with equestrian statue of King Frederik 5 (King of Denmark and Norway 1746-66) by sculpture Jacques Saly 1771 in the middle of the square by architect Nicolai Eigtved 1750-54. In the background Amaliegarden with fontaine (1983) and The Opera House (2002-04) on the other side of Copenhagen Harbour. At left Brockdorff Palace by architect Nicolai Eigtved and builded by Joachim von Brockdorff (1695-1763) in 1760. Today residence for Crownprince Frederik and Crownprincess Mary and their 4 children. .Amalienborg Slotsplads tegnet af Nicolai Eigtved 1750-54 med rytterstatue af Kong Frederik den 5 (Konge af Danmark og Norge 1746-66) af billedhugger Saly 1771. I baggrunden Amaliehaven (1983) med springvand og på den anden side af Københavns Havneløb ses Operahuset opført 2002-04. Foto: 5. may 2014 af Erik K Abrahamsen

 

Click on the photos and use your zoom control and you see them in full screen size.

 

The King of Denmark as a symbol of national sovereignty:

The danish King Christian 10 (1870-1947) became from 10. april 1940 and during the 5 years of German occupation of Denmark the non-violent symbol of Danish national sovereignty. The King Christian 10 (King of Denmark 1912-47) did his daily ride in the streets of Copenhagen without any protection from the Royal Guard (Livgarden) or danish police but surrounded and protected on his ride by danish patriot citizens on walk or bikes.

 

The danish King Christian 10 on his daily ride in 1940 in Copenhagen:

 

King Christian 10 on his horse. Gyldenløvesgade in Copenhagen 1940. Source: National Museum of Denmark. Copyright expired after 70 years in accordance to Danish Law. Photographer unknown. Thanks for using this photo in my article.

 

 

King Christian 10 on horse on the riding ground of Christianborg Castle 1919:

Photo by artist Laurits Tuxen (1853-1927)

 

Christian Christian 10 on riding ground on Christianborg Castle 1919. Photo by danish artist Laurits Tuxen (1853-1927) – a photographic source to L.Tuxen oil painting:: “Christian den 10 til hest på Christiansborg Ridebane”, 1919, 283 cm x 198, Museet på Sønderborg Slot. Scannet from original photo af L. Tuxen. Sign. L.Tuxen on back of the photo.

 

Source:

Den Store Danske Encyklopædi, Bind 1-20, Danmarks Nationalleksikon A/S 1994-2001

KIM, ved Vibeke Malthe-Bruun,Thanning & Appels Forlag, København, 1949. “Uddrag af Dagbog og Breve skrevet af Kim fra hans syttende til hans enogtyvende Aar” udgivet af hans Moder Vibeke Malthe-Bruun, copyright 1945 by Thanning & Appel, Copenhagen. First edition november 1945.

On this homepage Danculture.dk you can read my article:

Mindehøjtideligheden i Mindelunden i Ryvangen 4. maj 2015 – 70 års dagen for Danmarks befrielse

 

Copyright text and photos Erik K Abrahamsen 2014

All rights reserved

 

12. may 2014

Melby, North Sealand, Denmark

Best regards

Erik

 

5 Comments

  1. Just to thank you for this article…I have been researching war memories of my Uncle, Sven Teisen, whom, I know, was involved in helping Jews escape to Sweden. He was a superb swimmer (swam from Denmark to Sweden) and sailor and had a boat of his own. Both he and his wife Budda drowned in a storm during one such rescue effort or, possibly, in testing out the boat after Winter storage.

    Since all living memory of this period will soon disappear, I would be very interested if you have recorded any, more personal accounts? I remember, for example another Aunt, Inge Teisen, telling me how, when the Germans came to search their apartment, she hid their radio under her knitting in her lap. She would laugh telling me this.
    Kind regards, kaerlig hilsen, Merete.

  2. Dear Merete!

    Thank you for your mail and kind remarks.

    I am sorry to hear how your uncle and his wife lost their lives helping jews and resistance fighters of the danish resistance movement under german occupation of Denmark under 2. World War.

    I don’t have any personal accounts, but I have told my families personal history 1940-45 in Aarhus during the war, where my Father worked as a doctor. You can find my article “Aarhus i sne-dragt lillejuleaftensdag 2009 – Besøg i min barndomsby 23. december 2009” on my second home page: Erik K Abrahamsen Blog. ( Search under Archiv: december 2009) .

    Best regards
    Erik

  3. Dear Erik.

    I am wondering if you can help me.
    Is there a definitive list of the Danish resistance fighters executed during 1943.
    I am trying to find out what happened to a RAAF crewman on the night of 5th September 1943.
    He is believed to have been executed along with the Danes who were helping him find a boat to Sweden.
    Any help would be most appreciated.

    Ray Whiteley

    RAF Binbrook Heritage Centre

  4. My mother was in the resistance and her fiancé who was a doctor in volved in the smuggling of Jews to Sweden.
    I know his name was Henrik and he was taken by the gestapo in 1943.
    My mother never found out what happened to him and she has since died.
    Any help would be good. Sadly I have no other details other than a photograph.
    Thank you
    Rachel Sime

  5. Dear Sirs,

    I am a Dutch national and found your website on internet

    I have another tough nut to crack, since I am working in the war story of my great uncle; the Dutch national Han Jordaan and came across another mystery. I wish to ask your advice at this:
    I have a question for you. I am writing the story of my great uncle; the Dutch SOE-N agent Han Jordaan.
    After the ending of a very successful and infamous German counter espionage game; the Englandgame (also called by the Germans ‘das Englandspiel’ or ‘Nordpol’), as a prisoner in KZ Sachsenhausen, between January and 19 February 1945; my great uncle Han Jordaan; who was a captured SOE-Netherlands agent who had been dropped in The Netherlands on 28/03/1942 and was captured after five weeks operating in liberty, met a Danish prisoner of about his own age (27 years) in a so-called ‘Schonungsblock’ (Quarantaine block) at KZ Sachsenhausen Oranienburg.
    His name was Hans Erik Kastoft from Copenhagen, member of the DKP and who had been arrested by the German occupier for espionage and the spreading of illegal pamplets. This Kastoft, who at the very last moment before the end of the camp was evacuated by the Swedisch Red Cross in their famous white busses to KZ Neuengamme and therefore survived the war.
    Mr. Kastoft was a student of political science and a member of the Danish Communist party. The material I have states that his illegal work consisted in clandestine press and espionage, but it gives no details – only on his itinerary through different German camps and prisons, especially Dreibergen prison in the town of Bützow (questionnaire).

    Mr. Lundbak; Archivist of the Danish Resistance Museum, told me the following:

    “It is probable that Mr. Kastoft has a file with the authority named ‘Erstatningsraadet’ (= Compensations Agency). You will have to ask permission to see such a file by writing to the Danish National Archives: https://www.sa.dk/en/

    I would like to get to know more about this Kastoff.
    When Han Jordaan was sent to Mauthausen (unfortunately his final destination, since he died there on 21/04/1945), Kastoft, who was supposed to go with him on transport, at the very last moment was kept at Sachsenhausen, since the Swedes were negociating with Himmler about the release of the Danes and the Norwegians in the German camps, and he gave Han Jordaan one of his own food packages of 5 kilo for his pending journey to Mauthausen, freezing with many other ‚Häftlinge‘, in cattle wagons.
    Kastoft was supposedly a young communist and had wealthy parents. At least that’s what the story tells.
    The father of Han Jordaan tried to find Kastoft right after the war but unfortunately didn‘t succeed…
    Perhaps you can help me in finding more about him in Denmark? Perhaps you know someone who knows everything about the Danish resistance? Perhaps you even hold a file on him? Best for me would be if I could even obtain a photograph of him…
    I do know for sure that Hans Erik ( „Erik“) Kastoft was a ‘normal’ communist resistance fighter’.
    Thanks many times in advance for thinking with me. His sister was Helga Kastoft and she was also an important DKP member who went to the resistance…
    I hope to hear from you soon again.
    Best regards,
    Joost

    Met vriendelijke groet/ with kind regards,
    Drs. Joost A. Rethmeier
    Consultant